amaranthus retroflexus infections

In Europe, Amaranthus retroflexus is one of the ten weed species of greatest economic importance. A combination of polyuria and glycosuria is an uncommon finding in large animals and is usually caused by nephrosis. Sankyo Agro Co. for instance patented 6-chloro-3-(3-chloro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridazin-4-ol as a new herbicidal 1,2-diazine <2004JPP284970>. Wir lieben Pflanzen, naturnahe Lebensweisen und die Lust am Neuen! Kidneys are pale and normal to swollen in size. are of economic importance worldwide. Die ganze Pflanze ist weißlich blassgrün, im oberen Teil dicht behaart. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Die Perigonblätter der weiblichen Blüten haben eine Stachelspitze am Ende des Mittelnervs, die Blütenstände fühlen sich deshalb rau an. Oak toxicosis (Quercus spp.) Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) poisoning of cattle in southern Brazil. Basic information. 1. Weed species not previously observed in fields planted to summer annual crops have rapidly appeared following elimination of preplant tillage. Extra-renal lesions include edema and ulceration of the digestive tract. Code created in: 2004-04-29. Fig. In garden. Sie schmecken ähnlich wie Rote Rüben. Khevsureti, Georgia (Photo: R. Bussmann) Open image in new window . Swine have been poisoned when fed redroot pigweed and by grazing it. A fire which clears away competing vegetation can allow the establishment of rough pigweed. The effect of tillage practices on the population dynamics of summer annual weed species is complex and involves several factors. The primary source of arable-response, summer annual weed species is the weed seed bank in the soil, with the largest source of seed being that produced in previous years in the same field. Management practices such as selective application of glyphosate to tall-growing perennial weeds, the use of crop cultivars resistant to herbicides such as glyphosate, and interrow cultivation help reduce perennial-species densities regardless of tillage system. Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) is another small-seeded summer annual dicotyledon species that has responded inconsistently to changes in tillage systems. Open image in new window. If the toxin can be identified, it should be removed. Established winter annual plants preempt space, suppress summer annual species, and can be very competitive with summer annual crops. It is an annual spreading by seeds which have a long viabilityand are dispersed principally by wind and … retroflexus may be best-suited to systems with moderate tillage, because its seeds are well-adapted to shallow burial. Source: Buhler D. D. (1998) Tillage systems and weed population dynamics and management. (2004) indicated that vegetation cover has important influence on not only soil properties but also on soil microbial biomass (SMB), because it guarantees the input of organic matter into the soil and also impresses protecting effect against soil erosion. Your trusted lab partner for Pigweed Rough (Amaranthus retroflexus) IgE testing, Viracor Eurofins delivers your results faster, when it matters most. Summary of an influence of environmental factor on selected bacterial OTUs in the soil environment is presented in Table 2.2. Deep burial of seed of small-seeded species by moldboard plowing reduces germination and emergence. theophrasti seedlings emerge from cracks in the soil. theophrasti establishment from seed germinating on the soil surface is much less than for seed planted 6 cm deep, and seedlings from surface-placed seed are less vigorous. careless weed. Most cases of nephrosis are caused by the direct action of toxins, but hemodynamic changes may contribute to the pathogenesis. Signs may suggest hypocalcemia in cows, and some animals respond briefly to IV calcium. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B032301125X500285, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323357753000114, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128114100000167, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323298759000203, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148495000022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123943149000038, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008044992000701X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780702052460000139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489091181, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014, Konnie H. Plumlee DVM, MS, Dipl ABVT, ACVIM, ... Patricia A. Talcott, in, Melanie A. Breshears, Anthony W. Confer, in, Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease (Sixth Edition), Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats), Pediatric Allergy: Principles and Practice (Third Edition), Metagenomic Achievements in Microbial Diversity Determination in Croplands, Viruses and Virus Diseases of Vegetables in the Mediterranean Basin, Six-membered Rings with Two Heteroatoms, and their Fused Carbocyclic Derivatives, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Amaranthus retroflexus (A maranthaceae). Pellitory (Parietaria spp) is found throughout the zones. CYSDV is not transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly. PDF | On Nov 17, 2012, Wojciech Pusz and others published Fungi inhabiting Amaranthus paniculatus | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate In acute cases the kidney is swollen and wet on the cut surface and edema, especially of perirenal tissues, may be apparent. Fields, barnyards, and waste areas are … Dilated tubules and tubules filled with necrotic debris are often present and interstitial fibrosis may be present in chronic cases. Soil treatment with this pyridazinol revealed a strong growth inhibition of for instance Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus retroflexus without damage to corn. Family: Amaranthaceae Common Names: Amaranth, Pigweed Description: Amaranth grows in disturbed soil from dry to moist climates. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Selected Weeds of the United States. Epidemic curves are generally best fitted to either the Gompertz or logistic regression models (Ruiz et al., 2006). The sorrels and docks pollinate earlier than many weeds, coinciding with the grass pollen season. Rohm and Haas Co. found the 6-arylpyridazin-3(2H)-one 395 to be interesting as it gave a good control when tested against Mexican bean beetle and two-spotted spider mite at 300 g ha−1 (Figure 25) <1996EUP738716>. Zur sicheren Unterscheidung der ca. It is often difficult to determine whether changes in population dynamics are due to biological properties of the weed species or differences in the effectiveness of control practices. There are also examples of commercialized insecticidal 1,2-diazines: the cholinesterase inhibitor Pyridaphenthion 387 (1974, Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals) and the energy metabolism disruption agent Pyridaben 388 (1991, Nissan Chemicals) (Figure 23). Ultrasonographically, renal changes are seen in foals receiving high daily doses of phenylbutazone. Gałązka et al. Conservation-tillage systems have the potential to increase densities and species diversity of perennial weeds, but management practices such as crop rotation, selective application of glyphosate or other herbicides, and interrow cultivation can prevent perennial weed species from increasing to levels that reduce crop yields or increase production costs. Conversely, seeds of large-seeded species remain near the soil surface in conservation-tillage systems, inhibiting establishment. have been associated with acute tubular necrosis in small animals, especially cats. However, since soil disturbance is required to plant crop seeds and incorporate fertilizers in annual cropping systems, arable-response species may continue to exist in no-tillage fields. S. faberi seed germinating on the soil surface has an establishment percentage similar to seed planted 1–4 cm deep, but establishment is reduced by 50% when the seeds are planted 6 cm deep. Johannes Vogel, ein Spezialist für pflanzliche Notnahrung, zählt die Familie der Amarante („Fuchsschwänze“) zu seinen 12 weltweit wichtigsten, (auch) in der Wildnis zu findenden,  Nahrungspflanzen. Weeds of agronomic crops are a unique group of plant species because of their ability to infest and often thrive in intensively disturbed habitats. Plantains (Plantago spp) are common weeds, which, while moderate pollen producers, have a long season, from spring into fall. Winter annual species germinate in the late summer and autumn, survive the winter, and flower the following spring. Pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.) Hemodialysis was used successfully to treat a foal with presumed oxytetracycline nephrotoxicosis. When the soil is tilled in the spring, rosettes and seedlings of winter annual and biennial species recruited during the previous growing season are destroyed. Diclomezine 386 was launched in 1987 by Sankyo and is a fungicidal pyridazine (Figure 23). Sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella) is considered a moderate hay fever inducer; curly or yellow dock (R. crispus), is a lower pollen producer but a common plant. Brompyrazon 375, Norflurazon 376, Metflurazon 377, Oxapyrazon 378, Flufenpyr 379, and Dimidazon 380 are structurally closely related herbicides (Figure 23). The three of them, pH, salinity, and temperature, have a strongly evolutionary nature and usually the vast majority of bacteria species die after certain values of these factors are exceeded. Pigs allowed access to pastures or lots containing pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) may be poisoned. Maes, G.L.F. (3) There were differences in allele frequencies among life history stages at all localities in Amaranthus retroflexus and at three localities in both Carduus acanthoides and Pastinaca sativa. Signs appear within five to ten days after exposure and include trembling, weakness, incoordination, knuckling, and almost complete rear leg paralysis. It should be emphasized that there are many parameters that modify the structure and function of the bacterial community in environment. As an obligate initial community species, rough pigweed needs bare, disturbed sites in order to establish [26,38]. The most common response among annual dicotyledon species has been reduced density of large-seeded species such as Ab. Control of pigweed in pastures and holding pens with herbicides may be practical. CYSDV is one of the most damaging recent emerging viruses in cucurbits. Species most rapidly and commonly observed are winter annual and biennial species that are characterized by an inverse tillage response. Table 3. For publication in journals, books or magazines, permission should be obtained from the original photographers with a copy to EPPO. These weed species are unable to complete their life cycles in association with summer annual crops if the soil is disturbed after harvest or prior to crop planting the following spring. Finden Sie Blühpflanzen nach Ihrer Farbe! (2016) estimated higher α-diversity (expressed by bacterial richness) in vineyard rather than in uncultivated soils; however, in respect to fungi communities, those differences were not confirmed. In the chronic stages the urine is isosthenuric and may or may not contain protein. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. Amaranthus retroflexus (A maranthaceae). Co. canadensis can infest no-tillage fields very rapidly because it is commonly found in field edges and roadsides, produces many wind-disseminated seeds, is tolerant to many commonly used herbicides, and can become established under a wide-range of soil and climatic conditions, making it well-adapted to the no-tillage soil environment. Because of the growth habit and ability to adjust photosynthetic responses to temperature, many winter annual species can grow even during the winter. N-Arylureas of 3-aryl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridazines 391 for instance have shown to be very active (Figure 25). Several species of pigweed, particularly Amaranthus retroflexus, can be responsible for acute tubular necrosis and perirenal edema in pigs and cattle. The toxic principle is not known. Seed buried by previous tillage may also persist for several years and continue to be a source of arable-response species in no-tillage systems. It has already been reported in 11 Mediterranean countries (Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, and Turkey) in protected and open field cucurbit crops (CABI/EPPO, 2004; Papayiannis et al., 2005; Yakoubi et al., 2007). The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. These infections suppress the immune function and allow the seed of bacteria to gain access to the kidneys. The toxic principles are tannins and their breakdown products. Renal injury from pigweed has been reported in pigs, cattle and sheep. In cattle there is a continuous mild hypocalcemia with signs reminiscent of that disease, which responds, in a limited way, to treatment with calcium. EPPO Code: AMARE ; Preferred name: Amaranthus retroflexus ; Authority: Linnaeus ; Notes. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in winter annual, biennial, and perennial weed species. No Ab. The kidneys may be swollen and pale. Rabbits fed Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) did not develop lesions of renal toxicosis reported in other species fed this plant. Amaranthus retroflexus. Amaranthus retroflexus (AMARE) Menu. Researchers of Bayer Cropscience patented pyridazin-4-ylcarboxamide 394 since in Spodoptera frugiperda corn sheet disk assays at 500 g ha−1 100% protection was found after 7 days (Figure 25) <2006WO000333>. B.U.W. Since tillage systems affect weed management, weed seed production, and soil disturbance, changing tillage systems changes the distribution and density of weed seed in agricultural soils. A representative example is the group of Qian in Dalian working on the development of new pyridazin-3(2H)-one containing insecticides <2003JFA152>. Winter annual, biennial, and perennial species are well adapted to no-tillage, because there is little or no tillage to interrupt the life cycle. Summer annual species are usually the most troublesome weeds in production systems dominated by summer annual crops, because they are well-adapted to the environment created by the production systems (i.e., similar life cycle, high fertility, annual disturbance, production in rows, and herbicide use). Junge Blätter sehr mild, spinatähnlich, roh oder gekocht essbar, nach der Blüte werden die Blätter bitter. In a no-tillage system, more than 60% of all weed seeds are found in the upper 1 cm of soil and few seeds are found at more than 10 cm. Lemière, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III, 2008. Resistances to CYSDV have been identified in genetic resources of cucumber and melon, and partially resistant commercial cucumber cultivars are available. See the section on Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract, Disorders of Ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, and Goats), Oak Toxicity: Acute Tubular Necrosis (Quercus Spp.) Differences in emergence depths in different field tillage systems reflect differences in weed seed distribution in the soil. In greenhouse research, Ab. Thus, these species can rapidly infest fields (often during the first year) when tillage is eliminated. Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) in the east and several western sages (Artemisia spp) are important pollen producers in the late summer, rivaling the importance of ragweed in the western states. In 1964 BASF already launched the herbicide Chloridazon 374 (Figure 23). (eds.) A. In subacute cases, impaired tubular resorption of solutes and fluids may lead to polyuria. Field trials on vegetables and cotton against fall armyworm, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, and tobacco budworm had activities as low as 10–20 g ha−1. In peracute cases, such as those caused by vitamin K3 administered by injection, there may be colic and stranguria. The pigweed family includes several different species capable of producing toxicosis, but Amaranthus retroflexus is the species most commonly associated with disease in domestic animals (Burrows and Tyrl, 2001). Several new 1,2-diazines with insecticidal properties were also discovered. Seeds are small, shiny, and black. Alle Amarantblätter, auch die der wilden Arten, sind leicht verdaulich und können wie Spinat, der sie ja verdrängt hat, zubereitet werden. Cushing's syndrome (chronic hyperadrenocorticism pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction) is more common in horses and includes characteristic signs of polyuria, glycosuria, debilitation, hirsutism, polyphagia, and hyperglycemia. Overview; Pests; Pathways; Reporting; Photos → Documents; Tools Propose photos. Treatment for specific toxins may be available, as described elsewhere in the text. It has rapidly replaced BPYV in Southern Spain and was recently introduced in the United States, where it causes severe epidemics. Other herbivorous species are likely susceptible, although the disease was not able to be reproduced in rabbits fed A. retroflexus (Schamber and Misek, 1985). Changes in the weed seed bank occur with time and weed-management programs. Figure 24. Sequencing of the CP or HSP70 genes revealed that there were indeed two main groups, a “Western” subpopulation in the Mediterranean basin (Spain, Jordan, Turkey, France, Tunisia, and Lebanon) and America, and an “Eastern” subpopulation present in UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Iran (Rubio et al., 2001). Hervé Lecoq, Cécile Desbiez, in Advances in Virus Research, 2012. (1998) and Liu et al. Patented 1,2-diazine derivatives with agrochemical applications. Several other pyridazine herbicides found the way to the market, such as Maleic hydrazide 381, Pydanon 382, Pyridate 383, Pyridafol 384, and Credazine 385 (Figure 23). All CYSDV isolates from the “Western” group shared 99–100% nucleotide sequence identity, suggesting a common and recent origin (Yakoubi et al., 2007). Other winter annual species such as Bromus tectorum (downy brome) and Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse) have also been observed to infest no-tillage fields. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Redroot pigweed, pigweed, and careless weed are common names for some Amaranthus spp. Goldenrod, Solidago spp, is a showy late summer flower which has been blamed for much of the misery caused by the less conspicuous ragweed. The toxic principle is not known. Sie sind ideal für die schnelle, leichte, aber gehaltvolle Küche! The earliest indication of tubular epithelial damage in experimentally induced nephrosis is the detection of the proximal tubule enzyme GGT in urine. Two 300-kg steer calves had fluid-distended abdomens and extensive ventral subcutaneous edema suggesting urolithiasis.2 Duration of illness among affected cattle ranged from 1 to 14 days in one report.2 New cases may continue to develop for 5 to 10 days after removal from the source. Increases in perennial weed populations vary among sites because tillage interacts with weed-management practices, environment, and initial perennial weed populations. Coagulative necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules is also reported in cattle.2 Oxalate crystals are seldom seen. The magnitude of changes in summer annual grass densities has varied among experiments, but the potential for rapid changes in density and emergence patterns of these weed species clearly exists. Weed species that have the ability to germinate and become established when the seeds are at or near the soil surface have the greatest potential to increase under conservation-tillage systems. Understanding the responses of nitrogen metabolisms in native crops and invasive weeds to N pulses is essential in investigating the invasive mechanism of invasive weeds. Patented 1,2-diazine derivatives with agrochemical applications. In cattle one of the first clinical signs is weight loss. Ruminants are at risk of nitrate poisoning if large amounts of immature pigweed stems high in nitrates are consumed. Bild 1: Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz wird auch als Wilder Amarant bzw. D.D. In open fields, plastic mulches and floating covers may reduce virus spread. Several methods have been used to detect CYSDV. Table 2.2. The toxic principle is likely a group of phenolic compounds present in the leaves. It is a serious problem weed in several field crops (e.g. Symptoms were similar to those caused by BPYV including severe yellowing of the older leaves. Although goldenrod and sunflower are primarily insect pollinated, they can release moderate amounts of pollen, which may persist at higher levels as ragweed pollen is waning. 2c) … Protect Your Horses and Livestock From Toxic Plants A guide to identifying and controlling common, toxic noxious weeds and other toxic plant species. These four major ragweed plants strongly cross-react.27 Cocklebur (Xanthium commune) and the marshelders (Iva spp) are related to ragweed, but are of lesser significance. In addition, summer annual species that do not require burial for establishment are well-adapted to no-tillage systems. Toxic nephropathy, without oxalate crystals, has been reported in cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and, rarely, in horses.1 The plants are often browsed lightly without harm, and poisoning is rare. Pigweeds such as Amaranthus retroflexus are ubiquitous. are potential nitrate accumulators and may contain some soluble oxalates. It is intriguing that there is not much activity in academia in the agrochemical application area. Sumitomo Chemical Co. reported that the combination of 1-(2-chloro-6-propylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-3-ylsulfonyl)-3-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea and cafenstrole gave a better herbicidal effect against Echinochloa oryzicola than when cafenstrole was used alone <2005JPP126415>. Kidney infections are generally individual animal problems and cows may have the history of a prior infection from a retained placenta, mastitis, pneumonia etc. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. Sharon M. Gwaltney-Brant, in Veterinary Toxicology (Third Edition), 2018. Nordamerika. However, certain hormone-type herbicides (such as 2,4-D) may make pigweed more attractive to cattle. Another significant portion of the Ab. Nitrogen (N) pulse is a frequent event in agroecosystems caused by fertilization. (2004). Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz (Amaranthus reflexus) wird treffend auch als Wilder Amarant und als Rauhaariger Amarant bezeichnet. Amaranthus retroflexus . It requires a blood urea and creatinine estimation and a urinalysis for differentiation. theophrasti seedlings when a field has not been tilled the previous two growing seasons. If tillage is removed from the system, these seedlings survive and grow during the autumn and winter and are established at the start of the second year. Toxic nephrosis in cattle and pigs has already occurred by the time clinical signs become apparent. In Veterinary Medicine (Eleventh Edition), 2017. kommt auch mit ungünstigeren Bedingungen zurecht, Lasagne mit Spinat und Ragù alla Bolognese, One-Pot-Pasta mit Spinat oder anderem Grünzeug. Changes in the population dynamics of summer annual dicotyledon species with changing tillage practices have been less consistent. Weed species with different life cycles have different requirements for seed germination, seedling establishment, growth, and reproduction. Cattle with advanced and severe nephrosis may exhibit a bleeding diathesis. All photos included on this page can only be used for educational purposes. Rapid growth early in the spring can also make winter annual species difficult to control with herbicides if allowed to grow until or after the time of crop planting. rough pigweed. redroot pigweed. Ascites and perirenal edema are common lesions in cattle and pigs at necropsy. The number of whiteflies infesting a crop at an early stage is a good predictor of the outcome of the disease (Ruiz et al., 2006). Ruminants … Lamb's quarter (Chenopodium album), a modest pollen producer, has a worldwide distribution. Recently, via metagenomic tools, Ishaq et al. Surface topography influences the emergence location of Ab. In Mitteleuropa ist er als eingebürgert zu betrachten und … theophrasti seedlings emerge from bare soil, and the majority of the Ab. Oak toxicosis (Quercus spp.) Azotemia occurs when uremia is present. Depression, weakness, trembling, and incoordination may be noted initially. In different studies at different locations, Ch. Die Pflanze selbst verträgt keinen Frost, überdauert jedoch als Samen auch frostige Winter. In no-tillage systems, there has often been a marked drop in the variety of annual species. is seen in ruminants after consumption of new leaves or acorns. Weeds can be classified in many ways, and understanding weed life cycles is important in predicting population shifts and designing management strategies. Indoxacarb is sold as a 3:1 mixture of the (active) (S)-isomer and (inactive) (R)-isomer. CYSDV can persist up to 9 days in the vector, the longest retention time reported for a whitefly-transmitted crinivirus (Wisler et al., 1998). The toxic principle is likely a group of phenolic compounds present in the leaves. Strands of white fibrous plant material from mature pigweed stalks may be found in rumen contents. To address this issue, research has been conducted to separate various aspects of tillage–weed species–weed-control efficacy interactions to elucidate the mechanisms of weed population shifts. Clinical signs include weakness, ataxia, knuckling of pasterns, recumbency, paralysis and coma; death occurs within 1–2 days of onset of signs. CYSDV was first detected in cucurbit crops in the United Arab Emirates in 1982 (Hassan and Duffus, 1991) It was found in the Arabic peninsula both in outdoor melon and watermelon crops and in indoor cucumber crops. Gajda and Martyniuk (2005) and Gałązka et al. Winterhärtezone (USDA) Z5 – bis -23 °C. Er ist in Mitteleuropa ein häufiges, wärmeliebendes Unkraut in Mais- und Zuckerrübenfeldern, in Haus- und Gemüsegärten sowie in Weinbergen. Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia with elevated CK, urea nitrogen, and creatinine are reported. Photos. In: Hatfield J. L., Buhler D. D., and Stewart B. An oxalate-induced nephrosis has been described in Tibetan spaniels with an inherited hyperoxaluria. Also the 2-benzyl-6-(4-chlorophenyl)pyridazin-3(2H)-one 390, reported by Rohm and Haas Co., proved to be very promising as fungicide as 85% control of Phytophthora infestans infected tomato plants at 300 g ha−1 was achieved (Figure 24) <1996EUP711759>. The degree of renal epithelial loss is not sufficient to cause complete renal failure and, provided the degree of renal damage is small, complete function is regained. USDA, 1970. For example, weed populations in reduced-tillage systems where summer annual crops are grown are dominated by arable- and intermediate-response summer annual species, because the soil is disturbed annually and management practices favor summer annual species. Der obere Teil der Wurzel ist oft auffällig rot. There may also be a direct toxic effect on glomeruli, which decreases glomerular filtration. (2011) stated greater reduction in fresh and dry weight of leaf and stem of Amaranthus hybridus due to infection by Amaranthus mosaic virus. Combining characteristics of life cycles and tillage response of weed species is useful in predicting weed population shifts. Herkunft & Verbreitungsgebiet. Changes in seed depth in the soil and the corresponding differences in emergence depth may contribute to shifts among weed species. Preventing exposure and possible ingestion of large amounts of the plant, especially by cattle or pigs unaccustomed to eating it, is recommended. Melanie A. Breshears, Anthony W. Confer, in Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease (Sixth Edition), 2017. Figure 25. Redroot pigweed also contains an unknown toxicant that causes renal tubular nephrosis. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 39(2):94-96; 33 ref. The presence of surface residue increases soil moisture and reduces soil crusting compared with bare soil, thus providing adequate moisture conditions for germination for a longer period of time. Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual, herbaceous weed. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press. Fig. Conformationally restricted analogs such as 392 showed excellent activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran pests (Figure 25). The slow degradation of the compound combined with the difficulties to prepare it on large scale led to the decision not to pursue commercialization. A real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to detect the virus in individual whiteflies (Gil-Salas et al., 2007). Der Zurückgebogene Amarant (Amaranthus retroflexus), auch Zurückgekrümmter Fuchsschwanz oder Rauhaariger Amarant genannt, ist eine Pflanzenart innerhalb der Familie der Fuchsschwanzgewächse (Amaranthaceae). As suggested by Lupwayi et al. No biological variability has been reported so far for CYSDV. Mexico. The results of this study showed that the alcoholic extract of Amaranthus retroflexushad an antibacterial properties that can be considered as an adjunct to further studies for in vivo conditions and replacement with common chemical agents in the treatment of infections. However, seed depth in the soil appears to be the most important factor. 70810S - Pigweed Rough Amaranthus retroflexus IgE - … The combined effect is oliguria and uremia. It is widely distributed in cultivated soils, gardens, cattle lots, and waste areas. If there is sufficient tubular damage, there may be back leakage of glomerular filtrate into the interstitium. In contrast to the medicinal applications, the interest for the use of 1,2-diazines as agrochemicals has existed for a much longer time. From: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014, Konnie H. Plumlee DVM, MS, Dipl ABVT, ACVIM, ... Patricia A. Talcott, in Clinical Veterinary Toxicology, 2004. Alternaria alternata was the most common species. Source: Buhler D. D. (1998) Tillage systems and weed population dynamics and management. vulgaris . Microscopic lesions are those of toxic nephrosis and include widespread necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in cattle and pigs. Treatment with IV calcium and magnesium solutions may correct the serum electrolyte values, but cattle may remain in sternal recumbency or respond briefly.3. Perennial monocotyledons might be the greatest threat to the adoption of reduced-tillage systems because of the importance of monocotyledon crops in many regions of the world. Tillage is the primary cause of vertical seed movement in arable soils. After absorption from the intestine, calcium oxalates precipitate in either vessel lumens or walls or within renal tubules, where they cause obstruction and epithelial cell necrosis. A. Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz (Amaranthus reflexus) wird treffend auch als Wilder Amarant und als Rauhaariger Amarant bezeichnet.. Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz ist in ein häufiges, wärmeliebendes – und gut essbares - „Unkraut“. Der Rauhaarige Fuchsschwanz ist in ein häufiges, wärmeliebendes – und gut essbares -  „Unkraut“. Impact of pH on Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes is still unclear; some results presented negative effect (Yun et al., 2016) whereas the other assumed that this effect is insignificant (Sheng et al., 2016). 2. The compound 392 however served as a key template for further research and finally led to the oxadiazine insecticide Indoxacarb 393 which has been launched by Dupont Crop Protection in 2000 (Figure 25). Beta vulgaris ssp. Their pollen grains are very similar and difficult to discriminate by species. 1 and 2). Responses of soybean and five weeds to CO2 enrichment under two temperature regimes. Compound 396, another representative of this class, gave 95% control of Plasmopara viticola on grape plants (Figure 25) <1998EUP835865>. Histopathologic changes within the kidney include interstitial edema, scattered hemorrhages and proximal tubular degeneration and necrosis. Because tillage greatly alters the environment where weed species survive, altering tillage systems favors certain life cycles over others. Rutigliano et al. CYSDV epidemics depend on whitefly populations. Kommt in Mitteleuropa wild bzw. Extensively grazed stands of pigweed should be recognizable in the fields, lots, or pastures where the animals were confined in the previous 2 to 3 weeks. Diarrhea may be present that is sufficiently intense to cause severe clinical dehydration. Agriculture Handbook No. Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Integrated weed and soil management, pp 223–246. In acute tubular nephrosis, urinalysis abnormalities are usually present before serum or plasma urea and creatinine concentrations are increased. Buhler, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014. Numerous annual or perennial weeds are significant inducers of hay fever. (eds. Keywords: Medicinal Plants, silver nanoparticles, Amaranthus retroflexus It grows 2 to 3 feet tall and the lower stems are red or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot. Histologically there is necrosis and desquamation of tubular epithelium, and hyaline casts are present in the dilated tubules. The present disclosure enables a multivalent approach to inhibiting pathogen infection in plant and human and non-human animal subjects and to ameliorate damage to susceptible subjects. Seeds of Amaranthus cruentus, A. paniculatus and A. retroflexus grown in Poland were colonized at least by 18 species of fungi. Pl. As it is demonstrated, it is difficult to point on one of the most important factors influencing on all the bacterial OTUs abundance. for a discussion of tannins. 366. This happens after introducing a herd or group of animals to a pasture or field where the plant is abundant, but desirable forage is not. ). Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). Ruminants are at risk of nitrate poisoning if large amounts of immature pigweed stems high in nitrates are consumed. Moldboard plowing results in the most uniform distribution of seed over soil depths. Effect of tillage systems on depth of emergence of Setaria species under field conditions. Kareem et al. Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) is another small-seeded summer annual dicotyledon species that has responded inconsistently to changes in tillage systems. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Since the first genetic studies CYSDV genetic variability also appeared particularly low (Aguilar et al., 2003; Rubio et al., 2001). Claims. Hence, noted by researchers, decrease or increase in the abundance of OTUs is the effect of the sum of many environmental factors, both physical, chemical, and biological. 20 bis 80 Zentimeter. Therefore, the general statement that perennial weeds increase as tillage decreases must be made with caution. maize), as well as in vegetables, orchards and grape vines. Amaranth is the name given to a group of approximately 70 species of annual or short-lived perennial plants in the genus Amaranthus including several species of aggressive edible weeds native to the US such as Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed). These signs include depression, dehydration, anorexia, hypothermia, a slow or an elevated heart rate, and weak pulse. +, increased density with reduced tillage. vulgaris var. Die Pflanzen sind entweder (bei den Untergattungen Amaranthus und Albersia) einhäusig getrenntgeschlechtig (monözisch) oder (bei der Untergattung Acnida) zweihäusig getrenntgeschlechtig (diözisch). ausgewildert vor: JA! Redroot pigweed is a large, coarse, annual with red stems and simple, egg-shaped, wavy-margined, alternate leaves. These data suggest that the safe-site concept should be extended below the soil surface to the depth where soil surface conditions influence germination conditions and that soil cracks may be a factor in weed emergence patterns. Was tut sich im Garten und bei den Wildpflanzen? Changes in soil surface characteristics and disturbance patterns in no-tillage systems create an environment where winter annual and biennial species may become established and complete their life cycle. is seen in ruminants after consumption of new leaves or acorns. album densities increased, stayed the same, or decreased in response to reduced tillage. The concentration of weed seed in no-tillage decreases logarithmically with increasing depth. Overview → Pests; Pathways; Reporting; Photos; Documents; Overview . Oxalate-induced tubular necrosis occurs in sheep and cattle after ingestion of toxic quantities of oxalates that accumulate in plants of various genera, such as Halogeton, Sarcobatus, Rheum, and Rumex. Several species of pigweed, particularly Amaranthus retroflexus, can be responsible for acute tubular necrosis and perirenal edema in pigs and cattle. In sites, where wild oat (Avena fatua L.) was cultivated, the dominants were bacteria of Rhizobiales order, and Rhodobacteraceae and Comamonadaceae families (Ishaq et al., 2017), whereas winter wheat had simulative effect on bacterial representatives of orders: Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales, and Myxococcales (Ishaq et al., 2017). (2017) observed an increase of soil biological activity when direct sowing in monoculture was implemented. and mushrooms, Oxalate in ethylene glycol or ascorbic acid, which is a metabolic precursor to oxalate, Primary hyperoxaluria caused by an inherited metabolic defect in Beefmaster calves, Tannins in the foliage of oak trees and acorns, Unidentified toxin in Amaranthus retroflexus in pigs, cattle, and lambs,2 in Narthecium asiaticum fed to cattle and Isotropis forrestii in ruminants, Mycotoxins, such as ochratoxins and citrinins, fumonisins in ruminants, Ingestion of Lophyrotoma interrupta (sawfly) larvae by cattle, Cantharidin in horses following ingestion of dead blister beetles in alfalfa hay and hay products, Most nonspecific endogenous or exogenous toxemias cause some degree of temporary nephrosis. Figure 23. Amaranthus retroflexus (AMARE) Menu. Zu finden ist der Neophyt weiters auf Zuckerrübenfeldern, in Gärten und Weinbergen, an Wegrändern und Flussufern und  als Ruderalpflanze auf ungenutzten bzw. The most commonly reported change in annual weed populations with decreased tillage is an increase in summer annual grass species, including S. faberi, S. viridis (green foxtail), S. glauca (yellow foxtail), Panicum dichotomiflorum (fall panicum), and Cenchrus incertus (field sandbur) (Table 2). The recent development of Co. canadensis that is resistant to glyphosate makes it an even more troublesome species. Amaranthus tricolor cv. (2017) found that the monoculture soils are characterized by lower values of enzymatic activity, microbial biomass, and nitrogen content. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Influence of tillage systems on densities of selected summer annual weed species in Zea mays and Glycine max production systems. Tremmel DC, Patterson DT, 1993. Even today Chloridazon is still used for the cultivation of sugar beet and red table beet. are potential nitrate accumulators and may contain some soluble oxalates. Since its first description, CYSDV has rapidly spread to the Eastern and Western Mediterranean areas. Unkrautamarant und als Zurückgebogener Amarant bezeichnet. Diabetes mellitus is rare in horses and extremely rare in ruminants. Perennial weed populations increase as tillage is reduced, because the underground system is not disturbed and most herbicides used to control annual weeds are not fully effective on established perennial plants. Amaranthus spp. Table 2. Moldboard-plow plots have fewer weed seeds in the upper 20 cm of soil than chisel-plow or no-tillage plots after 5 years. The average genetic distance in the CP or HSP70 regions between worldwide isolates was about 0.0025 (Rubio et al., 2001). Jung und gründlich gesäubert, auch roh. Hypoproteinemia may be present. The two major tumbleweeds found in the Central Plains, Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and burning bush (Kochia scoparia), are introduced and have expanded throughout the central states to the gulf and California coasts. Auch die Wurzeln sind dem Magen zuträglich, vor allem von Pflanzen, die noch keine Blüten gebildet haben. In a typical incident, cattle or swine become recumbent within 5 to 10 days after ingesting large amounts of pigweed. Treatment should be directed at general supportive care for acute renal disease as outlined earlier. The green, inconspicuous flowers are borne in short, compact clusters along with green spines. It grows on every continent on … Amaranthus retroflexus L., also known as redroot pigweed, is an invasive and cosmopolite plant belonging to Amaranthus genus, anciently used as food sources. In acute nephrosis there is oliguria and proteinuria with clinical signs of uremia in the terminal stages. However, new seedlings of winter annual and biennial species may emerge under the canopy from seeds in the seed bank or that move in from adjacent areas. Its host range initially thought to be limited to cucurbits has been recently extended to several noncucurbit hosts including cultivated species (lettuce, bean) or weeds (Sida hederacea and Amaranthus retroflexus) (Wintermantel et al., 2009). The negative impact of monoculture on soil biological properties was also emphasized in the study of Acosta-Martinez et al. In addition to classification by life cycle, a classification appropriate to understanding weed-population dynamics under different tillage systems follows: Arable-response weed species that require periodic, regular disturbance of the soil for survival; Inverse-response weed species that require undisturbed soil for survival; Intermediate-response weed species that survive in both disturbed and undisturbed soil. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Zurückgekrümmter Fuchsschwanz, Rauhaariger Amarant, Amaranthaceae - Fuchsschwanzgewächse Hochsommerblüher, VII–IX, 20–120 cm hoch, sommergrün, einjährig Der Zurückgekrümmte Fuchsschwanz stammt ursprünglich aus Nordamerika und ist vom Menschen mittlerweile fast weltweit verbeitet worden. theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur), and Cassia obtusifolia (sicklepod) as tillage is reduced (Table 2). Höhe. Rauhaariger Fuchsschwanz, Krummer Fuchsschwanz, Zurückgebogener Amarant Blütezeit: Juli bis September. 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