dioscorea bulbifera morphology

Fresh leaves of wild and in vitro cultivated plant of D. bulbifera cut in the standard median position and then soaked in concentrated nitric acid for 3-5 h in a covered Petri dish were used for epidermal study. A taxonomic study of some species in. Joly et al. This has led to the near extinction status of this plant in the southeastern part of Nigeria[5]. In water saturated flask atmosphere such as the one presented in tissue culture experiments, the accumulation of specific gases (ethylene) in the confined atmosphere causes a dramatic increase in the transpiration rate leading to the failure of stomata to close[46]. bulbifera L.,D. SRG/FP/2010/4A). These are edible and potato like in flavor. Hegnauer (1963) mentioned many Dioscorea species containing diosgenin, but as is known from other authors, only certain Dioscorea have so far been found to contain sufficient diosgenin of economic importance. Morphological characteristics are used to distinguish between different soils and they are used in classification of soils (Soil Survey Staff, 1998). Leaves 9-25 x 8-23 cm, ovate-suborbicular, base deeply cordate, apex acuminate to shortly caudate, membranous, glabrous, basally 9-11-ribbed; petiole to 20 cm long. It is named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides 73 Grafica 19 Concentración de alcohol para D. bulbifera al 10%, 13%, y 16% 74 Grafica 20 Concentración de alcohol para D. trífida al 10%, 13%, y 16% 75 Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. In dry tuber incubation endogenous enzymes are destroyed. Produce tubérculos basales; sin embargo, los “bulbillos” (o tubérculos aéreos) que crecen en la base de sus hojas son el producto alimenticio más importante. The techniques utilized in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in literature[25]–[27]. Kevers C, Franck T, Strasser RJ, Dommes J, Gaspar T. Hyperhydricity of micropropagated shoots; a typically stress-induced change of physiological state. The highest level of this compound (16.15%) was found by Ting et al. NPs synthesis was completed within 5 h showing a prominent peak at 540 nm. Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively. It is possible that the combination of BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.20 mg/L)1+cysteine (20 mg/L) in this study was responsible for shoot regeneration as control without these plant growth regulators failed to grow after observation in culture medium for more than 6 weeks. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The techniques utilized in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in literature (Saheed and Illoh, 2010; Smillie and Khan, 2010; Santos et al., 2008). In the 1970’s, Pal and Sharma (1979) induced mutations by X-irradiation in D. bulbifera and D. alata with subsequent changes of steroidal sapogenin and alkaloid content in the species. A combination of these features had been found useful for taxonomic distinction and recognition in angiosperm families. Ivanova T, Gussev C, Bosseva Y, Stoeva T. Soares JD, Pasqual M, De Araujo AG, De Castro EM, Pereira FJ, Braga FT. A. Osiyemi is gratefully acknowledged for plant identification. Similarly, introduction of 6 weeks old cultured plant from MS media+BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) in fresh MS media supplemented with NAA (2.0 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) resulted in 50% production of single nodal bulbil with aerial root attached to the bulbil and profuse whitish callusing at the base of the nodal vine after 8 weeks of culturing (Figure 5B). Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot and no shoot and root formation. Many species have a low rate of flowering and fruit setting and poor seed germination. It is widely cultivated and has become naturalized in many regions (Latin America, the West Indies, the Southeastern United States, and various oceanic islands). Smillie TJ, Khan IA. In the present review its habit, habitat, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties are discussed. The absence of a stalk in the female flower of D. bulbifera is a distinctive feature of this taxon. ex De Wild. 1033. Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. Dioscorea hofika Jum. (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales. La Dioscorea bulbifera que crece de forma silvestre puede ser tóxica, En cuanto a su valor medicinal, en algunos países la Dioscorea bulbífera es cultivada para satisfacer la demanda de la industria farmacéutica, porque contienen el esteroide llamado diosgenina, principal componente de … Mr. O. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Abstract. Pharmacognistic study of two medicinal species of. Although the development of successful in vitro propagation and storage protocols are reliable methods that make possible the establishment of extensive germplasm collections, plants cultivated in vitro present certain anatomical and physiological characteristics intrinsic to culture environment[8]. Rose leaf structure in relation to different stages of micropropagation. Phytotax. Vines with tuberous root stocks; Stem terete, twining to left. Quigley (1978) investigated Dioscorea species from Ghana: D. bulbifera, D. burkilliana, D. hirtiflora, D. minutiflora, D. praehensilis, D. preusii, D. togoensis and D. zanzibarensis. Alarcón MV, Lloret PG, Iglesias DJ, Talón M, Salguero J. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Eight weeks old callus and profuse whitish callus. Dioscorea bulbifera (comúnmente conocido como la patata aire, ñame aire, ñame aérea, ñame amargo, ñame descarado, ñame papa y ñame chirivía) es una especie de la verdadera ñame en el ñame familia, Dioscoreaceae.Es originaria de África, Asia y el norte de Australia. ... Morphology D. bulbifera is a glabrous vine that climbs by twining to heights of 12 meters or more (fig. Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. bulbifera L.,D. One of the first plants to be investigated there were D. mexicana, D. floribunda and D. composita. Therefore, in the case of shifting from in vitro to ex vitro cultures, the cutine is gradually synthesized, with the decrease relative humidity of the medium in which the plant lives. The purified protein had molecular weight of 21 kDa. Origen. (1981) in rhizomes of the Chinese D. zingiberensis. This paper adds new data on the pollen and orbicule morphology of 61 Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae) species to the survey of Schols et al. These specific conditions are responsible for the structural changes occurring in micropropagated plants. sativa Prain. Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato): This true yam also produces axillary tubers but these can sometimes weigh several pounds. Dioscorea bulbifera var. However, the clinical application has been limited for its hepatotoxicity. It is well known that most histological traits of plant are under the control of environmental conditions. Maintaining the genetic identity of donor plant and a completely viable acclimatized plant yield after in vitro storage are the essential prerequisites for using in vitro culture techniques for ex-situ conservation purpose. Values are expressed as mean±SEM; 10 replicates per treatment. Nodal segments of D. bulbifera with elongated shoots. This may be caused by conversion of endogenous precursors by the enzymes liberated during tuber homogenization. You may notice problems with The family Dioscoreaceae is a very important amylaceous food source found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions worldwide. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. This plant was introduced to the United States … flower of D. bulbifera is a distinctive feature of this taxon. In view of the biological and medicinal importance of D. bulbifera, and the report of its near extinction in southeast region of Nigeria, the present study was designed to compare qualitative and quantitative micro-morphological characteristics of the wild and micropropagated plants which may be employed for correcting crude drug identification. The paper also provided information on the best conditions for obtaining a high level of genetic materials for the conservation of the plant. Dioscorea bulbifera L. is a medicinal plant. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. Morphology of flood plain soils Morphology deals with spatial distribution pattern of the soil characteristics. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. Better diosgenin production may also be achieved by addition of mycelia of some fungal species to the culture, a technique that seems be very promising. 1033. Mucilages are evenly and widely spread within the epidermal cell of the wild plant than the micropropagated plant. The medium was supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose and gelled with 5 g/L agar. Plant has two types of storage organs. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. Photomicrograph (Ziess standard 25) of the epidermises was obtained using Motic camera mounted on a compound light microscope and attached to a Pentium IV computer. After 3-6 weeks of culturing, cultures were subcultured in fresh basal medium depending on the experiments. MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/mL)+cysteine (20 mg/L) cysteine showed significant response of nodal segments of D. bulbifera with more than 80% growth response in which bud break was achieved within 2 weeks (Figure 3A and ​and3B).3B). Dioscorea alata (ñame), D. rotundata, D. esculenta, D. trifida y D. bulbifera (2). Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. In conclusion, the diagnostic features reported in the wild and micropropagated plants could serve as a basis for proper identification and authentication of D. bulbifera. Through the acute toxicity of various extracts including the EtOAc fraction (EF) and the non-EtOAc fraction (Non-EF) from ethanol, and the ethanol itself, we found that the EF contains the toxic ingredients of D. bulbifera rhizome. Preparation of epidermal imprints of living plant organs by the use of non toxic mucilage and latex. The plant had been reported to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties as well as used for diseases such as leprosy, tumours, piles, dysentery, syphilis and ulcers[21]–[23]. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Glycerin was used as mountant, and epidermises were covered with coverslips and the edges of the slide sealed with nail varnish to prevent dehydration. Distinguishing Characteristics. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Effect of plant growth regulator on. D. bulbifera, besides being important as an edible yam, is used in traditional medicine[17]. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Chinese: Huangdu, common name: air potato) is a traditional herbal medicine in China, and it is also one of the most widely consumed yam species, especially in West Africa. Akahori (1965) found an interesting correlation between morphological features and sapogenin content. (2001) which includes an overview of previous work. Most farmers regard the plant as weed competing with their farm products and clear them from the farm. Frequent in hedges. Observations on floral morphology of eight species ofDioscorea L., namely,D. Diosgenin was first isolated by Tsukamoto and Ueno (1936) from the Japanese species D. tokoro with a yield of 1%. Dioscorea bulbifera. Dioscorea hoffa Cordem. The authors are grateful to the management of National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology for providing technical support and an enabling environment during the study. Micropropagation of an Indian ginger (. The species have been the object of numerous studies by botanists, chemists and pharmacists. Dioscorea caillei A. Chev. (1977) found that D. bulbifera has diuretic and anti-inflammatory activity. The tubers are edible and have often been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine to treat … already built in. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features 2014 Mar; 4(3): 176–183. Food tuber yams include D. alata, D. bulbifera, D. rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. esculenta and D. trifida. The tubers are given the name yams. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated, China Humanity Technology Publishing House, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Bulbils and leaves of D. bulbifera were collected in November, 2011 from the field at Alabata village in Moniya, Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Conflict of interest statement: We declare that we have no conflict of interest. odoratissima Pax,D. Our observation of cuticular striations on the adaxial and abaxial epidermises of both wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera is in line with this report and can therefore be used as a diagnostic feature for standardization of the crude drug. Introduction . The stems range from thin (1-milli- Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor. Morpho-anatomical, biochemical and molecular parameters have also been used to monitor integrity and stability of in vitro grown plants[9]. Wadekar J, Sawant R, Honde B. Anthelmintic and antibacterial potential of, Venkata AS, Sai KD. Anatomical study, petiole, leaf, tuber, root and flower of, Aina OD, Atumeyi S. Foliar epidermal anatomy of four species of. dumetorum (Kunth) Pax,D. Climate Status In spite of the great medicinal application of D. bulbifera, preference is largely given by local people to the flavor of other yam species. The term, however, should not be confused with the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae), which is also known as yam in the USA. INTRODUCTION. The surface-decontaminated explants were trimmed on the edges and cut to the required length (1.0-1.5 cm) before vertically in Murashige Skoog (MS) medium-filled culture tubes (one explant per tube)[24]. This indeed may explain the opening of stomata pore and possibly the reason for having larger average width of stomata sizes in the micropropagated plant [adaxial surface (7.68±0.38) µm and abaxial surface (6.14±0.46 µm)] compared to the wild. The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. SRG/FP/2010/4A). phone: +2348063603103 . The primary fea-tures that can help in distinguishing the species include the nature of periderm, presence or absence of pericyclic Dioscorea burchellii Baker. It is therefore imperative to consider conserving this medicinally useful plant genetic resource. Therefore, foliar micromorphological description of crude drug may complement macroscopic description of medicinal plants which could be useful in preparing a monograph for its identification, thus providing a useful tool for collection and preservation of the species. Other authors found traces of diosgenin in D. bulbifera. Dioscorea bulbifera is an edible yam species differentiated from every other species by the possession of specialized aerial bulbils, usually produced on the base of petioles (Martin, 1974). Dioscorea bulbifera var. Stauntonia hexaphylla (Lardizabalaceae, Japanese name mube) () is widely distributed in thickets in lowlands and foothills in warmer regions of Japan, Korea and China. In this study, we explored the cascade working mechanisms of time-dependent hepatotoxicity induced by total saponins e … Leaf micro-characters can be used for distinguishing crude drugs even when they are fragmented[10]. 1033. 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. Biochemical investigations of D. floribunda following gamma irradiations were studied by Gupta et al. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of, Bejoy M, Dan M, Anish NP, Anjana RG, Nair BJ, Radhika K, et al. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. andD. It is suggested that there are two cotyledons in Dioscorea bulbifera L., D. praehensilis Benth., D. odoratissima Pax., D. hirtiflora Benth., D. preussii Pax., one of which remains in the seed as an absorptive organ. Sarma (1980) studied the influence of diosgenin, isolated from D. prazeri, on chromosomes of Allium cepa. En los años 50 del pasado siglo se estudió en Veracruz, México, una variedad de Dioscorea que se usaba como saponina o jabón para matar peces por la compañía Sintex. Adedeji O, Jewoola OA. PMID: 12819828 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Abstract. minutiflora Engl.,D. Dioscorea bulbifera (commonly known as the air potato, air yam, aerial yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam and parsnip yam) is a species of true yam in the yam family, Dioscoreaceae.It is native to Africa, Asia and northern Australia. In this regard, the important microscopic features of the leaf of D. bulbifera (an important medicinal plant) such as anomocytic and anisocytic stomata, glandular trichomes with unicellular stalk and multicellular head, cuticular striations, presence of mucilage within epidermal cell and polygonal epidermal wall with smooth surfaces may serve as useful diagnostic features. The plants are usually climbers, with tubers or rhizomes at the base. This is a good paper elucidating the importance of micro characters in the confirmation of the identity of both micro propagated and wild samples of D. bulbifera. Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue culture. In this paper, we report on the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Ag(+) ions using D. bulbifera tuber extract. 72 Grafica 18 Concentración de microorganismos (millones/ml) para D trífida al 10%13% y 16% p/v. The use of micropropagation techniques for endangered plant genetic resources conservation was recognized late in the 70s[6]. The only exception is D. bulbifera, which, although if has stems twining to the left and globose tuber and forms bulbils, was not found to contain sapogenins. He analyzed the Japanese Dioscorea species, three of which did not contain sapogenins. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. available on Dioscorea bulbifera and its management in Florida. The plant was identified by Mr. O. Umeshkumar MD, Vilas ND, Diniesh MS. Natural gums and mucilage's in NDDS: applications and recent approaches. Dioscorea bulbifera L., Sp. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Diosgenin content in Dioscorea roots is 4% to 6% of dry weight. Foliar microscopic features of adaxial epidermis of D. bulbifera. Observations on floral morphology of eight species ofDioscorea L., namely,D. Recent advances in the areas of diosgenin biosynthesis in tissue culture indicate great scope for obtaining higher yield of steroidal sapogenins in tissue culture, but also for encouraging more interdisciplinary studies in this field. Comparative qualitative and quantitative features of foliar epidermis of wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera. Numerous studies which have been carried out on Dioscorea species in laboratories interested in medicinal plants prompted the question as how to obtain diosgenin without cultivation of the plants in the field or how to regenerate them to provide a large number of plants. It is important to note that using tissue culture technique the problem of freeing the yams from virus diseases can also be solved. The leaves are shiny green, alternate with a long petiole. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. are presented. However, the present anatomical studies of the foliar epidermises of D. bulbifera revealed not only anomocytic stomata type but anisocytic. A potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Family: Dioscoreaceae) commonly known as ‘air potato’ is an important edible medicinal plant use to treat a wide range of diseases. Morphological, anatomical and phytochemical investigations are the integral part of herbal science. The quality of shoots and overall growth response in terms of average shoot length and number of leaves was best in this combination in which an average number of leaves (3.00±0.31), average number of shoots (1.33±0.17), average shoot length (53.33±3.50) mm and average root length (25.00±10.61) mm were recorded. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Naphthalene acetic acid had been reported to inhibit root elongation in a wide range of concentrations from 0.01 µmol/L to 1 µmol/L[32]. (1984). Another kind of chemical investigation of Dioscorea species is the biotrans-formation of steroidal saponins. Earlier workers reported shoot regeneration of 42%-75% in Dioscorea rotundata when cultured in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) and shoot plantlet regeneration of 60%-82% obtained in media made of NAA (0.05 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) or BAP (0.46 µmol/L)+kinetin (0.50 µmol/L) in Dioscorea alata[29]. Pharmacognostic and pharmaceutical studies of, Salmah T, Nashriyah M, Abdul-Ghani Y, Shamsul BA. Consequently, the plants are destroyed and are not eaten. andD. Introduction. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. The plant forms bulbils in the leaf axils of the twining stems, and tubers beneath the ground. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales.It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. Anatomical characters can help in the identification of plant when morphological features are not distinct. Folia Geobot. 1. MS medium was used as the basal medium for shoot and root proliferation. Organs of an individual plant living under stress undergo adaptive changes which determine their more effective function[43]. Mubo A. Sonibare and Adedapo A. Adeniran. Dioscorea bulbifera (scientific name: Dioscorea bulbifera L., also known as air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam, Chinese Pinyin: Huang Yao Zi, Simplified Chinese: 黄药子, 黄独, 木药子, 大苦, 赤药, 红药子), is a species of perennial vine in genus Dioscorea … Air potato is an aggressive, herbaceous vine that can attain lengths of 65 feet in a single growing season. Other Chinese species, D. althaeoides, D. colettii and D. septemloba, were the object of studies by Lou and Chen (1983) and Liu and Chen (1984), in which they isolated and identified diosgenin. Se le conoce como Varahi en sánscrito, kaachil en Malayalam y kand Dukkar en marathi. From the pharmaceutical point of view, the most important has been the finding that diosgenin production in tissue culture can be at least as high as in intact plants. Diaz MS, Palacio L, Figueroa AC, Goleniwski ME. Responses of nodal segments of D. bulbifera in MS media supplemented with BAP (1.5 mg/L) and NAA (0.3 mg/L) were poor as 20% of growth was recorded with no shoot elongation and root formation after culturing for more than 6 weeks (Figure 3B). MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. Selections from the book: “Medicinal and Aromatic Plants II”, 1989. Bitter Compounds in Tubers of Dioscorea bulbifera L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 22(2): 332-334. It contains detailed information on Dioscorea bulbifera, one of the most common and widespread yams of the tropics, which is known as air-potato yam because of its edible aerial tubers. The epidermal peel was rinsed (5×) to remove concentrated nitric acid and thereafter cleared with soft Carmel hair brush to dissociate tissue remains from the surfaces. One should consider the fact that abundant information on diosgenin production in tissue culture on the one hand and rapid development of the biotechnology of the plants on the other, would probably require the application of mathematical programming. Dioscorea bulbifera, Air Potato, Aerial Yam, Potato Yam, Bitter Yam Family. Sautour M, Mitaine-Offer A, Lacaille-Dubois M. The Dioscorea genus: a review of bioactive steroid saponins. Herein, we report the rapid synthesis of novel Au core Ag shell nanoparticles by D. bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). A: Nodal segments from green house with elongated shoot and leaves; B: Nodal segments from underground bulbil with elongated shoots and root proliferation. The storage protein of the aerial tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera was purified and its physicochemical, enzymatic and molecular properties determined with a view to comparing its functionality and genetic relatedness with other storage proteins. Smilacifolia De Wild. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); February 9, 2015 It is a vigorous climber plant native of West Africa predominantly found in forest gaps and forest edges.Clockwise twinning direction was reported in D. bulbifera and measures up to 12 m. Off Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria., Tel: +23408023255482, E-mail: *Corresponding author: Dr. Mubo A. Sonibare, Senior Lecturer, PhD, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. A survey of epidermal morphology of the genus. et al. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Accepted Name Air potato Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Dioscoreales > Dioscoreaceae > Dioscorea > Dioscorea bulbifera L. Subculturing of nodal segments of D. bulbifera obtained from Figure 3A and ​and3B3B after 6 weeks of growth in the same media resulted in formation of multiple shoots, 3.60±0.87 [mean length (49.20±5.71) mm] within 6 weeks of culturing, which was higher compared to multiple shoots, 2.40±0.40 [mean length of (33.60±7.48) mm] (Table 2) obtained from excised nodal segments from green house (Figure 4A and ​and4B4B). The aerial bulbil serves as the main storage organ rather than underground tubers or bulbils[3]. Comparative qualitative and quantitative features of foliar epidermis of wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera are presented in Table 3. Similarly, explants with single node were excised from underground bulbil (12 weeks old) sprouting after dormancy break but kept indoor away from light source (the sun). Previous workers have reported that phytochemicals including saponins, polyphenols and mucilage are the likely active components of Dioscorea species[35]–[37]. Just like every yam plant, D. bulbifera possesses an annual vegetative cycle. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of, Yasmiri G, Khan MA, Shaheen N, Hayat MQ. 2016. It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. *N1: 12 weeks old nodal segment of D. bulbifera obtained from green house; **N2: 12 weeks old nodal segment obtained from underground bulbils of D. bulbifera following dormancy break. Indian J Pharm Sci 49(6):233-236. Dioscorea cayenensis has anisocytic stomata, with a percent-age frequency value of 100. These have been employed in this paper to confirm the identity of the wild and micro propagated samples of D. bulbifera. This is why the viscoamylography and the morphology of native starch from yam congo were studied. Mucilages are generally normal products of metabolism formed within the cell (intracellular formation) and or produced without injury to the plant[34]. Climate Top of page. The presence of mass of mucilage within the epidermal cell and the presence of glandular unicellular trichomes with multicellular head are indicative of the medicinal lodgments of bioactive principles in the plant and in a way may justify its use in traditional medicine[33]. 1). This study combined taxonomic skill with tissue culture. The effects of Yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) intake on small intestine morphology in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats Louise da S. Asht Experimental Nutrition Laboratory, College of Nutrition, Federal Fluminense University, Rua Mário Santos Braga, 30, Niterói, RJ, 24020‐140 Brazil The mean±SE, minimum and maximum values were calculated for all variables. Leaf anatomy of orchids micrpropagated with different silicon concentrations. et al. It is a vigorous climber plant native of West Africa predominantly found in forest gaps and forest edges[1]. Generally, mean length of stomata size, epidermal cell size and trichomes of the abaxial and adaxial surfaces in wild plant were larger than micropropagated D. bulbifera while the average epidermal trichome in abaxial surface was larger compared with the wild. Dioscorea hulhifera By FRANKLIN W. MARTIN, plant geneticist^ Federal Experiment Station^ Southern Region, Agricultural Research Service, JJ. The same authors established that double-labelled cholesterol was converted by D. floribunda to diosgenin. Information is also included on related species occurring in Florida, including invasive winged yam, D. alata. Though many papers have reported the importance of micro characters, this report focused on the comparison between wild and micro propagated relatives using such characters and thus introducing another research dimension in biodiversity conservation. Pl. Rhizoma Dioscorea bulbifera, the tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera L., has been used to treat various diseases. (C,D) Starch granules of Dioscorea bulbifera tuber (AusMus 1/271; Vanuatu). Thereafter, they were soaked in 70% alcohol for 10 min and finally treated with 3% sodium hypochloride for 15 min and then rinsed thoroughly by intermittent shaking with sterilized distilled water (3×). Herein, we report the rapid synthesis of novel nanoparticles by D. bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. In Southwest Nigeria, D. bulbifera grows under the shade that contains a substrate composed of high levels of organic material and often over the tops of low-lying vegetation and into tree canopies. are presented.The most remarkable distinctive features of the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD. The studies of Dioscorea were at first prompted by economic reasons, mostly for the species used as food. 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. The combination and interaction of BAP and NAA had been reported to play an important role in in vitro propagation of nodal explants for multiple shoot induction[29]. For each treatment, 10 replicates were used and all the experiments were repeated three times. Healthy vines with active buds were collected from 12 weeks old plants of D. bulbifera raised and maintained in the green house. Wilkin P. Dioscoreaceae of South-Central Africa. 1 October 2016 Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry 1 Methods Contribution No. 9 RAGHUNADAN K, JOLLY C, 1987 Starch from Dioscorea bulbifera. As with many species within the genus Dioscorea, D. bulbifera does not support its own weight to any great height and in order to capture sunlight, this species has evolved to climb by twining on other plants (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2008). Foundation Project: Supported by University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant (Grant No. The steroidal sapogenins, mostly diosgenin, present in the tubers and roots are one of the most valuable commercial sources for synthesis of corticosteroidal drugs (cortisone) and sexual hormones such as progesteron. (1943) studied many other wild yams from Central America, such as D. composita, D. testudinatia and D. lobata, with high levels of steroidal sapogenin. Introduction of excised nodal segments from 6 weeks old plant in fresh MS media+BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (2.0 mg/L) resulted in formation of a single bulbil with aerial root after 4 weeks of culturing (Figure 5A). Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Morphology Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. Selain itu terdapat pula Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea pentaphylla, dan Dioscorea nummularia. Later, Marker et al. minutiflora Engl.,D. Frequent in hedges. * Corresponding author.E-mail: anniosuagwu@mail.com. Plant has two types of … A: Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot; B: Bud break with single leaf (no shoot and root formation). The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatotoxicity induced by D. bulbifera in mice. Ninety-five percent of Dioscoreaceae species belong to the genus Dioscorea, commonly known as yam (77). MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Bulbils occur in the leaf axis of numerous species of Dioscorea and contribute greatly to vegetative propagation. Clockwise twinning direction was reported in D. bulbifera and measures up to 12 m[2]. Dioscorea burkilliana J. Miège. Jimenez-Montero M, Aguilar-Martínez A. Dioscorea bulbifera wikipedia center for aquatic and invasive plants university of florida ifas {dioscoreaceae} air potato images useful tropical. Pl. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. *N1: 12 weeks old nodal segment of D. bulbifera obtained from green house; **N2: 12 weeks old nodal segment obtained from underground bulbils of D. bulbifera following dormancy break. Also, mucilages have been reported in the epidermis of senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile), Alexandrian senna (Cassia augustifolia Vahl), Cassia auriculata Linn. Slides were examined for assessment of the qualitative diagnostic features such as stomata type, cuticular striation on walls, mucilage and shape of epidermal cell with quantitative parameters such as epidermal cell size, stomata and epidermal wall dimension were recorded. Dioscorea bulbifera is a potent medicinal plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to its rich phytochemical diversity. Dioscorea bulbifera, also known as air potato, has been cultivated as food crop mainly in tropical countries in Asia and Australia. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Herbalist Dioscorea bulbifera is a serious invader of various ecosystems in Florida, where plants generated by its two morphotypes climb aggressively and smother supporting vegetation. They were rinsed in distilled water until explants were clean and free from Tween 20. Wild plant had thicker lignified walls than the micropropagated plant and mass of mucilages were evenly spread in the epidermal cell of the wild but condensed and scattered in the in vitro propagated plant (Figures 7 and ​and88). Behera KK, Sahoo S, Prusti AB. In recent years great advances in research on the Dioscorea species have been observed. New sources for important sapogenins have been indicated. Underground tubers, vary in shape and are rich in starch. Production of plantlets with profuse rooting in vitro is important for successful establishment of regenerated plants in soil[28]. Characterization and maintenance of yam (Dioscorea spp.) Phytochemistry 20:1569-1571. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Shah GL, Gopal BV. Comparison of diagnostic features of wild and in vitro foliar epidermis of abaxial and adaxial were carried out using independent student t-test. Vegetatively, D. bulbifera is cultivated by planting the whole bulbils, but it is not grown much commercially because of the unpalatable bitter taste[4]. Anomocytic stomata type reported in this work agrees with a previous report of anomocytic stomata in the order Dioscorales as in the case of Dioscorea hispida[40]. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces were carefully mounted on a clean glass slides and dehydrated by graded series 50%, 70%, 80% and 100% ethyl alcohol and later stained with safaranin O for 2 min; excess stain was removed by adding few drops of 70% ethyl alcohol. In the present study, MS medium+BAP (0.05 mg/L)+NAA (0.01 mg/L) produced the highest mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm with an elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm (Figure 2A, Table 1) representing 70% explants response after 8 weeks of culturing. Pollen and orbicule morphology of 35 species of Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae), a large tropical and subtropical genus of some 400 species, were examined by Schols et al. The main determinant factors are high relative air humidity, air composition and culture media content. At the moment, in vitro technique has found increasing significance as a complementary means to in situ plant conservation, especially for vegetatively propagated and recalcitrant seed-producing species[7]. The greatest development in sapogenin utilization has taken place in Mexico. Dioscorea bulbifera is also called Air potato it belongs to yam species. Some Dioscorea species play an important role in pharmacy. Dioscoreaceae, the Yam Family. There is a dearth of published research on its invasive biological attributes including vine growth and biomass production by plants generated from bulbils. odoratissima Pax,D. Studies have verified that D. bulbifera is effective in treating a wide range of diseases, such as pharyngitis, goitre, pyogenic skin infections, orchitis and cancer. The observation of whitish callus at the nodal base of D. bulbifera with resultant effect in suppression of shoot growth may be attributed to the presence of NAA at 1.0 mg/L in the MS media. Other authors have described the biological properties of diosgenin. La Dioscorea bulbifera, o “Patata aérea”, es una planta trepadora originaria de las zonas tropicales de Asia y África que pertenece a la familia Dioscoreaceae. preussii Pax,D. Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 91.05 and 8.95, respectively. Slight variations included closed stomata pore in the wild and open in the in vitro cultivated plants, cuticularization of epidermal walls was observed in the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the wild whereas it was noticed only on the abaxial surfaces of the in vitro plant. It comprises ca. 8 IRELAND C, SCHWABE W, GOURSEY D, 1981 The occurrence of batatasins in the Dioscoreaceae. V. Biology of Dioscorea bulbifera ... Taxonomy and morphology The genus Dioscorea, published in 1753 by Linnaeus (Genera Plantarum), was named after the Greek physician Pedinios Dioscorides, who was a medical officer in the Roman army at the time INTRODUCTION Tropical root and tuber crops are a subsidiary staple to over 20% of the world’s population occupying an important position after cereals and grain legumes (Orkwor et al., 1998). Healthy nodal segments from the green house and underground bulbil grown indoor. Shoot and root proliferation were scored and measured after 6 weeks of culturing. Okeke EC, Eneobong HN, Uzuegbunam AO, Ozioko AO, Kuhnlein H. Igbo tradional food system: documentation, uses and research needs. Morphology. Dioscorea bulbifera is also called Air potato it belongs to yam species. (1969) found that D. floribunda leaf homogenate converted the open-chain glycoside of diosgenin to dioscin. Coursey (1967) mentioned 53 Dioscorea species containing sapogenin, and a high percentage of diosgenin content (more than 2%) was found in 23 species ineluding D. composita, D. deltoidea and D. floribunda. At the beginning of the growing season, tubers and new bulbils produce thick sphagetti-like root from the rhizomatous head. La papa del aire (Dioscorea bulbífera), es una especie de ñame cierto en el Dioscoreaceae o verdadera familia yam. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. Dioscorea bulbifera (Papa aérea): información. Selvaraj and Subhas-Chander (1980) observed that fresh tuber homogenates of D. floribunda incubated at 37 °C for 24 h contained more diosgenin than control and dry tuber homogenates. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Dioscorea bulbifera. ... Observations on the floral morphology of some Dioscorea species (Dioscoreaceae) in Nigeria.

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