65-67 Unstated (former Jewish priest? with additions by Mombert, 1872), John T. Demarest (N. York, 1879); also the relevant parts in the "Speaker's Com.," in Ellicott's Com., the Cambridge Bible for Schools (ed. transl. It is a solemn warning against the antinomian and licentious tendencies which revealed themselves between a.d.60 and 70. Peter also warns against hierarchical ambition in prophetic anticipation of the abuse of his name and his primacy among the apostles. It is probably the oldest of the New Testament books, meagre in doctrine, but rich in comfort and lessons of holy living based on faith in Jesus Christ, "the Lord of glory." The Pastoral Epistles are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. There were very few such Christians until the apostles had been preaching many years, and had made converts in many lands; … Comm on Catholic Epistles Theme. Consequently, these letters have been labelled the Johannine epistles, despite the fact that none of the epistles mentions any author. These epistles, with the exceptions of 2 and 3 John, are addressed to a general audience of believers rather than to a specific church. Timothy, Paul’s close associate, was also involved in transcribing and delivering Paul’s letters (Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; Philemon 1:1). Analysis. Reuss occupies a middle position. Catholic Epistle, the name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter. Comp. See Saint James; Saint John; Saint Jude; Saint Peter. 138): "Thatsache ist, dass die Ep. In particular, he frequently … On the date of composition commentators are likewise divided, as they differ in their views on the relation of Peter's Epistle to Romans, Ephesians, and James, and on the character of the persecution alluded to in the Epistle. See Huther (in the Meyer series), 4th ed., pp. These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. The individuality of James, Peter, and John stand out very prominently in these brief remains of their correspondence. 625 sqq. Text Size. Regarded as one of the Reformation's best interpreters of scripture, Calvin is an apt commentator. John, EPISTLES OF Saint, three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The Catholic Epistles are distinct from the Pauline by their more general contents and the absence of personal and local references. He is mentioned with James as one of the brothers of Jesus, Matt. The household of God begins with the family, extends to the church, and often applies to the workplace. Acts 2:32), which contains the important truth of the universal intent of the atonement.  Hence Origen calls it an epistole katholike.  Comp.  Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and especially Fr. Christ died for all men, for those who lived before as well as after his coming, and he revealed himself to the spirits in the realm of Hades. It is a postscript to it, or a practical application of the lessons of the life of Christ to the wants of the church at the close of the first century. The time and place of composition are unknown. The first Christian document of an encyclical character is the pastoral letter of the apostolic Conference at Jerusalem (a.d.50) to the Gentile brethren in Syria and Cilicia (Acts 15:23-29). 2 John 4 -7 with 1 John 2:7, 8; 4, 2, 3. The seven Epistles of James, 1st and 2d Peter, 1st, 2d, and 3d John, and Jude usually follow in the old manuscripts the Acts of the Apostles, and precede the Pauline Epistles, perhaps as being the works of the older apostles, and representing, in part at least, the Jewish type of Christianity. The question is connected with Peter's presence in Rome, which has been discussed in 26. The question is connected with Peter's presence in Rome, which has been discussed in 26. Spitta in his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (Halle, 1885, 544 pages). On the date of composition commentators are likewise divided, as they differ in their views on the relation of Peter's Epistle to Romans, Ephesians, and James, and on the character of the persecution alluded to in the Epistle. Weiss, who denies that Peter used the Epistles of Paul, dates it back as far as 54; the Tübingen critics bring it down to the age of Trajan (Volkmar even to 140! The early Church gave the title “General” (or “Catholic,” meaning universal) to the seven epistles that bear the names of James, Peter, John and Jude. 417 sqq. The Pastoral Epistles focus on organization, relationships, and leadership within the household of God. by Dean Perowne), and in the International Revision Com. The second and third Epistles of John are addressed to individuals. Bible Version. The seeming exceptions, 2 and 3 … ), clearly a Jewish audience James 5 James, brother of Jesus Faith that works Jerusalem? (2d ed.). Most modern scholars believe the author is not John the Apostle, but there is no scholarly consensus for any particular historical figure. Catholic epistles definition, the New Testament Epistles of James, I and II Peter, I John, and sometimes II and III John and Jude, addressed to the entire church. Luther's harsh, unjust, and unwise judgment of this Epistle has been condemned by his own church, and reveals a defect in his conception of the doctrine of justification which was the natural result of his radical war with the Romish error.  Reuss (Gesch. 1. ; Weiss, Die Petrinische Frage (1865); Renan, L'Antechrist, p. vi and 110; and, on the part of the Tübingen school, Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, pp. The style is fresh and vigorous. The First Epistle of John betrays throughout, in thought and style, the author of the fourth Gospel. on this whole question the discussion in 27. The twenty-one books following Acts are epistles, or letters,written from church leaders to churches in various parts of theworld. The undeveloped state of Christian doctrine, the use of sunagoge for a Christian assembly (James 2:2), the want of a clear distinction between Jews and Jewish Christians, who are addressed as "the twelve tribes," and the expectation of the approaching parousia (5:8), concur as signs of the high antiquity.  Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and especially Fr. It is addressed to the Jews and Jewish Christians of the dispersion before the final doom in the year 70. For once I agree with him. 2. Alford: "There is no Epistle in the sacred canon, the language and spirit of which come more directly home to the personal trials and wants and weaknesses of the Christian life. Commentaries on all the Catholic Epistles by Goeppfert (1780), Schlegel (1783), Carpzov (1790), Augusti (1801), Grashof (1830), Jachmann (1838), Sumner (1840), De Wette (3d ed.  The chief objections are: the want of early attestation, the reference to a collection of the Pauline Epistles, the polemic against Gnostic errors, some peculiarities of style, and especially the apparent dependence of the second chapter on the Epistle of Jude. These three have traditionally been attributed to John the Apostle, the son of Zebedee and one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Comp. P. I. Gloag: Introduction, to the Catholic Epp., Edinb., 1887. Introduction We now come to the final eight epistles of the New Testament canon, seven of which have often been called the General or Catholic Epistles, though Hebrews has been excluded from this description. This perspective makes James an eminently practical book. It is a circular letter of the venerable apostle to his beloved children in Asia Minor, exhorting them to a holy life of faith and love in Christ, and earnestly warning them against the Gnostic "antichrists," already existing or to come, who deny the mystery of the incarnation, sunder religion from morality, and run into Antinomian practices. and is regarded amongst Catholic interpreters as the Apostle James the son of Alpheus (see JAMES THE LESS, SAINT). At the beginning of the third century the Epistle was universally accepted except in the primitive East Syrian Church, where none of the Catholic Epistles were recognized, nor the Apocalypse. The designation, however, is not strictly correct, and applies only to five of them. This Epistle has six chapters, 113 verses, and 2,269 words. The Epistle of James the Brother of the Lord was written, no doubt, from Jerusalem, the metropolis of the ancient theocracy and Jewish Christianity, where the author labored and died a martyr at the head of the mother church of Christendom and as the last connecting link between the old and the new dispensation. Reuss occupies a middle position. This accords with the principle of Peter professed at the Council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:11) that we are saved without the yoke of the law, "through the grace of the Lord Jesus." All three are letters from an old man at the close of his ministry who is concerned for his successors in the pastorate. An epistle was a letter written on a scroll most often dictated by an author to a scribe and then reviewed by the author before being delivered by a trustworthy messenger. But Paul condemned antinomianism as severely as James and Jude (comp. It may have been enlarged by the editor after Peter's death. It attests also the essential agreement of Peter with the doctrine of the Gentile apostle, in which the readers had been before instructed (1 Pet.5:12). This remarkably wide acceptance, representing as it does the voice of ancient tradition, testifies to the canonicity and the genuineness of Jude. The time of composition cannot be fixed with certainty, but is probably as follows: James before a.d.50; 1st Peter (probably also 2d Peter and Jude) before a.d.67; John between a.d.80 and 100. the epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or person in particular. The Second Epistle of Peter is addressed, shortly before the author's death, as a sort of last will and testament, to the same churches as the first. For once I agree with him. The seven General Epistles are: ; Hilgenfeld, Einleitung, pp. They belong to the seven Antilegomena, and have been ascribed by some to the "Presbyter John," a contemporary of the apostle, though of disputed existence. Tags: « Prev: 1 Peter 5:1-4: Next » 1 Peter 5:1-4. Published on Aug 17, 2018 Of the 27 books of the New Testament, Christians have referred to seven of them as the "Catholic epistles" (or "catholic letters") for more than a thousand years. Bengel: "Mirabilis est gravitas et alacritas Petrini sermonis, lectorem suavissime retinens." Alford: "There is no Epistle in the sacred canon, the language and spirit of which come more directly home to the personal trials and wants and weaknesses of the Christian life.". And that leaves seven Epistles. They represent different, though essentially harmonious, types of doctrine and Christian life. They were addressed to the church at large, i.e., the universal church. Hence they are called, from the time of Origen and Eusebius, Catholic. It strongly resembles the Gospel of Matthew, and echoes the Sermon on the Mount in the fresh, vigorous, pithy, proverbial, and sententious style of oriental wisdom. 5:13, whether it be the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse, i.e., heathen Rome, as a persecuting power (the fathers, Roman Catholic divines, also Thiersch, Baur, Renan), or Babylon on the Euphrates, or Babylon in Egypt (old Cairo). (See Authorship of the Johannine works.) The Catholic epistles are also distinguishable from each other in their varied emphases on aspects of Christian truth. The Epistle of Jude belongs likewise to the Eusebian Antilegomena, and has signs of post-apostolic origin, yet may have been written by Jude, who was not one of the Twelve, though closely connected with apostolic circles. Font. Bengel: "Mirabilis est gravitas et alacritas Petrini sermonis, lectorem suavissime retinens." Schriften N. Testaments, 5th ed., I. The letter constantly mingles moral exhortation (paraklēsis) with its catechetical summaries of mercies in Christ. summary The Catholic Epistles and Apostolic Tradition asks two questions: Can the Catholic Epistles from James to Jude be fruitfully examined in relation to each other, without contrasting them with the Pauline Epistles? d. heil. Commentaries on the Catholic Epistles by John Calvin Read Online Download Listen Summary Formats Reviews About Summary. ; Hilgenfeld, Einleitung, pp. This book introduces the Catholic Epistles and discusses the different interpretive approaches that have been used to gain a clearer understanding of them.  Its leading idea is "the perfect law of freedom," or the law of love revealed in Christ. The most commonly accepted explanation is that these epistles were addressed, not to individual churches or persons, but to a number of churches. Beyschlag (in the new ed. This term, however, is probably to be taken, not in the official sense, but in the original, signifying age and dignity; for at that time John was in fact a venerable father in Christ, and must have been revered and loved as a patriarch among his "little children.". Others have supposed that catholic is synonymous with canonical; but in this case also there is no more reason for applying the word to these Epistles than to any other Epistles. You’ll see Paul telling children to obey parents, masters to be kind to the… of Huther in Meyer, 1881) and Erdmann (1881), the most recent commentators of James, agree with Schneckenburger, Neander, and Thiersch in assigning the Epistle to the earliest date of Christian literature, against the Tübingen school, which makes it a polemical treatise against Paul. Catholic Epistles definition is - the five New Testament letters including James, I and II Peter, I John, and Jude addressed to the early Christian churches at large. contain catholic truths; but other Epistles might, for this reason, be also called catholic. The Second and Third Epistles of John are, like the Epistle of Paul to Philemon, short private letters, one to a Christian woman by the name of Cyria, the other to one Gains, probably an officer of a congregation in Asia Minor. The Tübingen critics put it down to the reign of Trajan; Renan, on the contrary, as far back as 54, wrongly supposing it to have been intended, together with the Epistle of James, as a counter-manifesto against Paul's doctrine of free grace. 1 Peter, for example, mentions Silvanus or Silas (1 Peter 5:12) as transcribing Peter’s letter. It is eminently practical and free from subtle theological questions. . The Epistle to the Ephesians is likewise intended for more than one congregation. Read this work This book contains John Calvin's excellent commentary on James, First and Second Peter, First John, and Jude. Public Domain, copy freely. 3. d. heil. (ed. (2d ed.). Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Easton, Matthew George. The second Epistle is reckoned by Eusebius among the seven Antilegomena, and its Petrine authorship is doubted or denied, in whole or in part, by many eminent divines  but defended by competent critics. It goes back to the early church fathers, but how it arose is unknown. Origen remarks that it is "of few lines, but rich in words of heavenly wisdom." It contains a renewed assurance of his agreement with his "beloved brother Paul," to whose Epistles he respectfully refers, yet with the significant remark (true in itself, yet often abused by Romanists) that there are in them "some things hard to be understood" (2 Pet.3:15, 16). Nine of Paul’s letters were addressed to local churches in certain areas of the Roman empire. On the other hand the Epistle to the Hebrews is encyclical, and ought to be numbered with the Catholic Epistles, but is usually appended to those of Paul. by Schaff), etc. Only two of these Epistles, the 1st of Peter and the 1st of John, belong to the Eusebian Homologumena, which were universally accepted by the ancient church as inspired and canonical. Three of the seven letters are anonymous. It takes no notice of the circumcision controversy, the Jerusalem compromise, and the later conflicts of the apostolic age. See more. Historians are fairly certain that Paul himself,Christianity’s first theologian and successful missionary, indisputablycomposed seven of the letters, and possibly could have written seve… Because of its unique apocalyptic nature, however, in this survey we are distinguishing it as The Prophetic Book of the New Testament. The first fourteen of these letters are called the “Epistlesof Paul” and are letters that tradition has accorded to St. Paulin his correspondence with the earliest churches in the first andsecond century. But the second Epistle resembles the first, almost to verbal repetition,  and such repetition well agrees with the familiar tradition of Jerome concerning the apostle of love, ever exhorting the congregation, in his advanced age, to love one another. by Brückner 1865), Meyer (the Cath. See Huther (in the Meyer series), 4th ed., pp. The first chapter defines the epistles and describes the history of their canonization. The Catholic Epistles are distinct from the Pauline by their more general contents and the absence of personal and local references. . It seems to be addressed to the same churches and directed against the same Gnostic heretics. And these are the Epistles, these seven are the ones that the Church has collectively named the Catholic Epistles. Even so, Paul verifies in eac… Catholic epistles. on this whole question the discussion in 27. James brings an action-oriented perspective to the principles that we can trust God to provide for us and that we must work for the benefit of others in need. This Epistle is called Catholic or Universal, as formerly were also the two Epistles of St. Peter, the first of St. John and that of St. Jude, because they were not written to any peculiar people or particular person, but to the faithful in general. ), but most critics assign it to the time between 63 and 67, Renan to 63, shortly before the Neronian persecution. The epistle is address to "the twelve tribes of the Dispersion," which means those of the twelve tribes dispersed in other countries than Palestine .  "This excellent Epistle," says Archbishop Leighton, whose Practical Commentary upon the First Epistle General of St. Peter is still unsurpassed for spirituality and unction, "is a brief and yet very clear summary both of the consolations and instructions needful for the encouragement and direction of a Christian in his journey to heaven, elevating his thoughts and desires to that happiness, and strengthening him against all opposition in the way, both that of corruption within and temptations and afflictions from without." Alongside the four Gospels, Acts, the Pauline letters (which often included Hebrews), and the Apocalypse, the Catholic Epistles (James, 1–2 Peter, 1–3 John, and Jude) form a discrete collection of works the New Testament. Weiss, who denies that Peter used the Epistles of Paul, dates it back as far as 54; the Tübingen critics bring it down to the age of Trajan (Volkmar even to 140! These dictionary topics are from M.G. It preaches a religion of good works which commends itself to the approval of God and all good men. History of the Christian Church, Volume I. The Epistle exhorts the readers to diligence, virtue, temperance, patience, godliness, brotherly love, and brotherly kindness; refers to the Transfiguration on the Mount, where the author witnessed the majesty of Christ, and to the prophetic word inspired by the Holy Spirit; warns against antinomian errors; corrects a mistake concerning the second coming; exhorts them to prepare for the day of the Lord by holy living, looking for new heavens and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness; and closes with the words: "Grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom be glory both now and forever.". Each has a distinct character and purpose, and none could well be spared from the New Testament without marring the beauty and completeness of the whole. They are of a more general character, and addressed not to individuals or single congregations, as those of Paul, but to a larger number of Christians scattered through a district or over the world. The God who called into being the family and the church is also the God who created work. For instance, 1 Peter dwells on Christian patience under trial, 1 John on Christian love, and James on matters of essentially practical interest. The individuality of James, Peter, and John stand out very prominently in these brief remains of their correspondence. It exhorts the readers to good works of faith, warns them against dead orthodoxy, covetousness, pride, and worldliness, and comforts them in view of present and future trials and persecutions. Bibliography Information. 30 sqq. Spitta in his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (Halle, 1885, 544 pages). In 1 Pt 4:12 – 19 persecution is described as already occurring, so that some have supposed the letter was addressed both to places where such a “trial by fire” was already present and to places where it might break out. It was written to churches in several provinces of Asia Minor, composed of Jewish and Gentile Christians together, and planted mainly by Paul and his fellow-laborers; and was sent by the hands of Silvanus, a former companion of Paul. First epistle Authenticity Aa Aa.  Comp. If faith is realif we truly trust Godthen our faith will lead to all kinds of practical actions for the benefit of others in need. Show footnotes.  Commentators are divided on the meaning of Babylon, 1:Pet. By contrast, most of St. Paul’s Epistles are written to one church, e.g., the Church in Rome, … A forger would hardly have written under the name of a "brother of James" rather than a brother of Christ or an apostle. 5:13, whether it be the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse, i.e., heathen Rome, as a persecuting power (the fathers, Roman Catholic divines, also Thiersch, Baur, Renan), or Babylon on the Euphrates, or Babylon in Egypt (old Cairo). ), but most critics assign it to the time between 63 and 67, Renan to 63, shortly before the Neronian persecution. The bulk of the letter, however, is a deep and poignant study on the basic doctrines of the Christian faith. It represents the primary stage of Christian doctrine.